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Rudra, son of Atlanta, fl. 1596. 


R"ashtrau.dhava.n'feak*avya of Rudrakavi / edited by Embar 
Krishnamacharya with an introduction by C. D. Dalai. --. Baroda : 
Central library, 1917. 

xxi, [31, 118,' 4, [1] p., [3] 1. s 25 cm. ^(Gaekwad's oriental 
series : 5) 

In Sanskrit; introd. in English. 
Includes indexes . 


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Adyhaksha, Sanskrlta Pathas'ala, Vadtal. 



C. D. DALAL, M. A. 

Published under the autiiorivy nv tite UnvEnvMFxr of 






Published by Janardan Sakharam Kudalkar, M. A., LL. B., Curator of State Libraries, 

Baroda, for the Baroda Government, and Printed by Bamchandra Yeau Shedge, 

at the 'Nirnaya-Sagara' Press, 23, Kolbhat Lane, Bombay. 

Price Rs. i-12-0. 


_ L, 


The Rashtraudha Vans'a Maha Kavya, which is presented to 
the public as the fifth number of the "Gaekwad's Oriental Series", is 
a historical poem containing the history of the Bagulas of Mayurfi- 
giri, from' the originator of their dynasty Rashtraudha, king of 
Kanouj to the reign of Nlr&yana Shah ? ruler of Mayuragiri, and 
the patron of the author. 

The Author of the poem and the date of composition. 

The author of the Rashtraudha Kavya is Rudrakavi, a south- 
erner. He was patronised by King Narayana Shah of Mayuragiri 
and it was under the latterV order that he composed the present 
Work in S'aka 1518 (1596 A. D. ). Rudra composed another work, 
called Jahangir Shah Charitra, a prose work divided into Ullasas, 
at the order of PratapaShah, the son of Narayana Shah. A 
fragment of this work discovered at Nasik shows that many verses 
of the present poem are repeated in that work ; e. g. ( 1 ) «Hd|tM<ir , T- 
fifofissr *r° VI. 8, sro III. 18. (2) sfor^rpR^ ^o XI. 36, 

5T. IV. 3. ( 3 ) ft^liDid^W clg q : ?Io XI 39, 3f° IV 5. (I ) ^ c# 
#f?i:?roXX.i95,5roIV. 12. 

The name of the author's father was Ananta, -while that of his 
grandfather was Kes'ava. He was patronised by N&rayana Shah 
and his son Pratapa Shah. The present work was composed by the 
author after hearing the subject matter from Lakshmana Pandita. 

' The summary of the" Poem. Once S'iva was playing a.$ 
dice with Parvati on the peaks of Mt. Kailasa. One. of the dice , 
accidently struck the moon in S'iva's -crest, and a boy of eleven- 
sprang from the moon. Pleased with his prayer, S'iva granted him 
the kingship of Kanyakubja. At. this time LatanS,, who seems to be 
the tutelary goddess of the kings of Kanyakubja, requested that the 
boy should be given to her for the throne of Kanouj. S'iva grant- 
ed her request. Virabhadra presented him with a sword af victory. 
Latana then took the boy and gave him to the king Narayana of 
Kanouj of the solar race, who was praying God for a son. The 


goddess, remaining invisible, told the -king that the boy will be 
known as Rashtraudha, as he would support both his kingdom and the 
family. He learnt the four lores from Gautama Rishi, the military 
art from Kartikeya and the Vedas from S'iva. No particulars of 
his reign are recorded. After him Virasena, Kantivira, Sahasiyiir- 
juna, Mallikarjuna, Jayas'ila and Gangajala successively came to the 
throne. Gangajala got through the favour of goddess Latana, two sons 
Kalasena and Gopachandra. Kalasena, his elder son, succeeded him. 
After a long reign, he went to forest for penance, placing his brother 
on the throne. There in the forest, he pleased Latana and Gautama 
through his penance and through the worship of MaMkala got the 
kingdom of Djjayani. With the sword given by the goddess Chakre- 
s'vari, he vanquished his enemies and entered his capital Kanouj. 
With his younger brother, he then set forth towards the North. The 
victorious king gave over the Kuruksketra to the Brahmanas. Hear- 
ing that the King of Kas'i sacked Kanouj with large forces, Kalasena 
stftrted with his brother to rescue his capital. * Seeing the waters 
of the Yamuni unfordable, Kalasena wavered in his determination. 
His younger brother, seeing this, cut off his own head and offered it 
to his brother for crossing the river. Kalasena crossed the river and 
killing the army of the king of Kas'i, entered victorious into the 
city. In order to bring his brother to life, he worshiped the goddess 
\Chakres'vari, who by joining the head and body of his brother 
brought him to life. As the head of Gopachandra joined obliquely 
appeared dreadful, the goddess called him Bagula. The decendants 
of Gopachandra were henceforward called Bagulas. Kalasena then 
putting Gopachandra on the throne of Kanyakubja ruled over 
Ujjain. Maha Kalingadeva, who succeeded Gopachandra, con- 
quered the countries of Karnata, Lata, Anga, Kalinga, and Vanga, 
After, him Tripurari, Khadgasena, Arjuna, Bhimasena, Ballaladeva. 
Vatsaraja, . Naganfitha, Parsurama, Raghava, Viravapala, Sures'a, 
Kanhara and Sinhana occupied successively the throne of Kanouj. 
Sinhana had four sons. The elder Jakharaja came to the throne ; 
while the other three Harihara, Yas'asvan and Sohada went to the 
cour4-of Jayasinha of Anahillapura (capital of Gujarat) for service. 
Harihara through the worship of S'iva, got the kingdom of Iddira 
Bhudhara ( the fort of Idar ). Yas'asvt and Sohada returned to 



Kanouj, and after paying their respects to their elder brother 
Jakharaja, set out for conquest. On their way, they conquered the 
Dasyus and performed a sacrifice. From the sacrificial lire suddenly 
came forth two white goddesses Dhanya and Punya who gave him 
the boon that he will be invincible in battles, that he should worship 
them and that his progeny will be known as Sitamba. Sohada then 
marched to the South and, coming to Pippalagrama destroyed 
the Nahalas and five hundred Bhils. The ruler of the village 
was much pleased and handed over the village to Sohada, who 
established his throne there. Yas'asvan, the elder , brother of 
Sohada, married the daughter of Ramadeva of Devagiri and 
residing in the impregnable fort of Devagiri protected the village 
of Talakunkana. His son, Gajamalladeva, who conquered the 
Gurjaras and the Malavas, took the kingdom of Allauddin, the lord 
of Yavanas, by killing him. Malugi succeeded him and conquered 
Ramaraja of Devagiri, the lord of nine lacs of archers. It was 
only at the humble request of his minister Hemadri that Ramadeva 
was released after being .made a feudatory prince. Malugi 
conquered twelve kings. His son Peyideva defeated Mayideva 
of the Lanki race, the .ruler of Navinasahasrades'a ( Navsari ' ) 
and burnt Bardoli. His son Nanadeva conquering Mahes'a, the 
lord of shepherds, secured Mt. S'alagiri and built Jaitnipun. 
Having established himself at S'alagiri, he took Mayuragiri and 
also Pis'olagiri, after conquering its ruler Jagacltchaya. The 
victorious king then performed a sacrifice in Yajuakheta, and gave 
over that town to the sacrificial priest of the Gautama family 
as dakshina. He also conquered Jagarikadeva, the king of the 
'Abhiras. At the request of his queen Jaitra, he handed over the 
town Jaitrapura to her. Jaitra, gave, to the Brahmanas horses, 
elephants, gold, silver, houses, fields and new clothes. She also 
made over sixteen towns to the Brahmanas and dug many tanks 
and wells. At that time the lord of Delhi, who had, after conquer- 
ing Karnata, Lata, Utkala, Chola, Gauda, Kalinga, Vanga and 
other countries, killed in battle Ramaraja of Rfimagiri, attacked 
Nanadeva. Nanadeva held out for a year but was eventually killed 
by seven hundred warriors. Ekadeva, who succeeded his father, 
destroyed the' Yavanas in battles, conquered ^ijjhaladcvaiija 




the son of Bhima, and ruled peacefully in S'alagiri. His son • 
Khadgasena performed many a sacrifice and defeated eight thousand 
Mogul warriors with their leader Mallika, took possession of 
Lalingachala and took its ruler a prisoner. He released Ballava 
and Ramaraja, who were attacked on all sides by the Yavanas in 
Vetanagara. His -son Rama, the ornament of the Bagula race, 
killed king Karnala who had taken shelter in a sea fort. His son 
Virasena burnt Lohapura of the Yavanas. When, on account of 
the infancy of his son Jopideva, the kingdom of the Bagulas w,as 
being shattered to pieces, the ministers approached Nanadeva, the 
king's paternal uncle, to be their king.' Nananeva, after holding 
consultation with old ministers, acceded to the request and per- 
formed the kingdom-giving sacrifice and gave gold, cows etc. to 
the Brahmanas. The king dreamt a very auspicious dream. "With 
auspicious omens, he' proceeded to recover his nephew's lost king- 
dom. He took possession of S'alagiri and gradually Mayuraehala, 
Chamarachala, Pis'ola Parvata and also many other impregnable 
forts. He defeated the proud Yavanas on the banks of the Godavari 
and helped the king of Malva in taking Mandapadri ( Mandu ). 
After conquering the king of the South, he plundered the town of 
Vaiduri. At Anantapura, he gave plenty of gold to Brahmanas, 
He filled his country with Brahmanas and 'freeing them from care 
s^bout their subsistence with grants of land, he made them sing 
the S(abdabrahma, and as his mind was fixed in the Parabrahma, 
he was called Nanabrahma. Jaitrapurl was fixed by him 'as his 
capital. After him ruled his son Bbairava. Dindima and other poets 
were patronised by him. To him the Gurjara king sent presents. 
His son Domaraja resorted to Mayuragiri. His son Mahadeva was 
a very devout ^worshiper of Mahadeva, and erected a temple of that 
god T on Mayuragiri. He propitiated the god^with his devotional 
prayers and asked of him the boon of a heroic son. The god 
granted him the request and his wife Manavati gave birth to a son. 
The astrologers prophesied that he will conquer his enemies and 
extend his kingdom. As he was obtained through the favour of 
Bhairava, and as he was to become dreadful to enemies in battles, 
he was named Bhairava. King Mahadeva gave plenty of gold to 
Brahmanas on this occasion. 


Bhairavasena's reign was very glorious. The ruler of the 
Mandapa Parvata ( the fort of Mandu ) sought protection from 
Bhairavasena , through the fear of Sulem Shah. Bhairavasena 
defeated Sulem Shah and gave shelter to the ruler of Mandu for a 
long time. 1 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, came to conquer 
the South, and called Bhairavasena in his aid. Bhairavasena set forth 
with the consent of his counsellors to join Bahadur Shah, who now 
attacked Deyagiri. 2 A battle ensued, in which Bhairavasena showed 
much bravery, but was wounded in the forehead. Nizam Shah, the 
ruler of Devagiri, was at last conquered, and his long-collected wealth 
was looted, and a general was placed on the fort by Bahadur Shah. 
Bhairavasena was now requested by Bahadur Shah to join him in 
an attack on Chittaure. The king of Chittaure, seeing the king of 
Gujarat with Bhairavasena, made peace and gave a large amount 
as indemnity. Hearing of this attack, Humayun came with a large 
force. Bhairavasena fought with him and defeated him. Bahadur 
Shah embraced the victorious hero and gave him great honour and 
sent him to his capital, offering many presents such as horses, ele- 
phants, gold, clothes, royal umbrellas, chouries and his own bracelet. 3 

1 cf. Shoojaat Khan, goyer.nor of Malwa, on going up to the fort one day, 
in front of the " king, was attacked by one Othman, a person whonriie had 
deprived of his right hand some time before, and who now, concealing himself 
by the road-side, rushed out, and inflicted a dagger wound on Shoojaat Khan, 
who without further enquiry, conceiving the actJhad been preconcerted with 
the king, fled with precipitation towards Malwa'with all his troops. The king 
pursued him as far as Mando ; but hearing that he had fled to iBans walla, he 
returned, leaving Eesa Khan Soor, with twenty thousand horse, at Oojein' to 
watch his motions. These events occurred in the year 954. 

Briggs' Ferishata Vol. II p. 134. 

2' When the light of the sun of Bahadur Shah fell on the fort of Muler 
Baharji Baja of Baglana was admitted to the. honour of kissing the carpet. 
The Sultan showed him much kindness, and gave him two magnificant ruby 
ear-rings. Baharji,, by way of showing his loyalty, gave one of his sisters in 
marriage to the Sultan, and the next day at the Sultan's desire, he married 
another of his sisters to Muhammad Khan Asiri and the Sultan marched 
thence. "When he passed the Baglana frontier, and entered the confines of the 
Sakhan, he bestowed on Baharji the title of Bahr Khan, and sent him against 
the fort of Chaul with orders to ravage and plunder that country. After that * 
he pressed on by forced marches to Ahmednagar. 

-Mirati Sikandari pp. 1G2-1G3. 

3 This is not. borne out by Mahomedan Historians. Sec Briggs' Ferishta 
Vol II pp. 270-276, 296-311. 



Once a learned Brahmana, bearing the surname of Garuda, 
hearing 4he liberality and the fame of Bhairavasena, came to 
Mayiirao-iri from Benares and told the king his intention of per- 
forming Soma sacrifice. Bhairavasena gave him plenty of gold 
and jewels All this was spent by the Brahmana in performing 
ihe Soma sacrifice. Seeing that the Brahinana had notfung left 
with him, the king granted him the village of Lakshalayakhetaka. 
Bhairavasena then marched with his army to the river God&vart. 
After bathing in the river and worshipping the god Tryambaka, 
he proceeded to Nipalakheta ( Niphad ), and defeating the general 
of the enemy, he looted his long-collected riches, horses and ten 
furious elephants. On the peak of Saptas^inga, he paid his 
respects to the eighteen-armed goddep He^hen besieged Hasta- 
giri (Hatgar) which, though held out by the warriors of Nizam 
Shah, was at last taken by Bhairavasena by breaking open the 
gates of the forts with the tusks of furious elephants and lulling 
the chief warriors of the enemies. After stationing one of his chief 
warriors with an army on the fort, the victorious king attacked 
the fort of Galana (Galan). Here- too the battle lasted for one year 

but eventually the fort surrendered to him. The fort of Al&ngala 

(Alangal), which contained much wealth, was then taken by ; 

him by killing its commandant. Bhairavasena had seven sons:— 1 
'jayadarna, 2. Virasena, 3.Nemadeva, 4. NMyana, 5. Mhyaundeva, 

C Lakshadhira and 7. Ambadeva. 

Virasena, the second son, succeeded him. During his reign 
Pathan Hapasi 1 with a powerful army came to the fort of Vyartt 
( in the Navasari District ). Frightened at this news, Virasena re- 
quested his brother Narayana to march against him. Narayana 
proceeded against the enemy and completely routed the forces of the 
enemy. Changis Khan, the Governor of Gujarat, then asked for 
tin; help of Virasena against Mira. Virama and Narayana both 
joined with an army and gave battle near Thalner but Mira could 
not be conquered on account of the help he received from Tapala- 
khana of Virata. Changiskhan had to fly away at night, leaving 
all his bag and baggage on the field. Narayana Shah also retreated 

1 Probably Alif Khan Habshi who murdered Changis Khan. 



but he returned to Changis Khan all that ho had left on the field.' 1 
The Emperor Akbar, hearing the fame of Virama Shah, invited 
him to his court. Accepting the invitation, Virama vent to Delhi, 
where he got honours from the Emperor. 

. . After his return from Delhi, Virama plunged himself into 
amorous pleasures and the chief queen Durgavati, who had 
captivated his heart, became all powerful. Durgavati told her 
husband to remove his brother from Mayuragiri. Virama, who was 
completely under the thumb of Durgavati, ordered his ministers to 
call S'arngadhara, the Brahmana of Ntlrayana, and asked him to 
tell Narciyana to leave Mayuragiri at once. The Brahma na'.s 
request for permission to reside in the adjacent village of Vadrudari 
was not granted. Narayana Shah went to ' his village Sidavada 
with his family. 

At this time the commandants of the forts of Viramasena 
approached NMyana Shah and requested that through the weak- 
ness of Virasena, enemies were trying to recover their lost forts 
and therefore it was necessary that Narayana Shah should take 
possession of the forts of Virama. It wSs with much hesitation 
that he accepted, the offer and took possession of S'alagiri. The 
officers, of the fort and the people acknowledged him as their 
ruler. Virama on hearing this, sent his general Yekalas Khan for 
getting true information about the movements, of Nardyana Shah. 
A Brahmana, named Nimba Dikshita, met him on his way, and 

1 cf. Meeran Moobarik Khan was' succeeded by his son Meeran 
Mahomed. In the same year Chungiz Khan of. Gujarat, instigated by Etimad 
Khan, the prime minister of Moozuffur Shall III, invaded the district of 
Nandurbar, and having compelled the Kandeish officers to retreat, boldly 
pushed on to the fortress of Talnere. Meeran Mahomed Khan, hearing of this 
in-road, called on Toofal Khan for assistance; and the combined forces of 
Kandeish and Berar marched to the Western frontier. On arrival at Talncre, 
"they found Chungiz Khan strongly posted with ravines on his Hanks, and his 
artillery and carriages of all descriptions forming a barrier in his front. 
Meeran Mahomed Khan used every effort in vain, during (lie clay of his 
arrival, to induce Chungiz Ivhan to <juit his position ; but during tin' nighl 
Chungiz Khan lied singly to Baroaoh, leaving his armv and all bis artillery in 
the hands nf Meeran Mahomed Khan, who on the following day occupied (he 
ground, which the enemy had quitted. 

Bi'iggs' 1'crishU Vol. IV pp. JIT-lt'. 


hearing from him that Narayana was recognized as the ruler of 
S'alagiri, Yekalas Khan returned and informed Virama about it. 
Virama was frightened and^ repented of his folly. He then sent 
his step-mother Lumayuji with an errand to Narayana Shah to 
come to him and enjoy his kingdom. 

Narayana made his elder son Pratapa Shah his heir-apparent, 
and entrusting to his care the fort of S'alagiri, marched to 
Mayuragiri. The ministers and the people received him with great 
joy and honour and Narayana Shah was crowned as the king of 
Mayuragiri. Lumayuji and the Brahmanas S'arangadhara and 
Bhavapandita were sent to bring Virama and his wife Durgavati, 
who had taken shelter through fear on the top of the fort. Virama 
was appeased and taken to Narayana Shah. Virama embraced 
Narayana Shah and handed oyer the kingdom to him. . Narayana 
Shah gave gold, jewels, villages, clothes, and a palace full of riches 
to his brother for residence, 

Narayana Shah was very popular and during his reign ^the 
people were contented and happy. The king undertook works of 
public utility like almshouses, and places of giving water to 
travellers in every village and town. The generals of the king of 
the South encamped at Anantapura with a- desire to take Mayura- 
Naruyana Shah viewed from the fort the large army of the 
enemy gathered at Navapura for a battle. Filled with rage, he 
stationed his archers on all sides of his capital, and the fire of guns 
was poured on the surrounding army from the forts of Morachala, 
( Mora fort ) Harigiri and Mayurachala. The enemy was routed, and 
retreated to Anantapura. One of the warriors of the enemy marched 
to Aravi with his army, but there they were plundered by the warriors 
of Narayana. Shah. The enemy's army then 'went to Devapura, 
but here, too it was scattered by Narayana Shah's army. After 
taking some days' rest, the enemy's army again wished to have an 
engagement. Through the fear of the terrible tiring, the army now 
marched to Jambavati by a circuitous way, keeping on the left the 
mountains of Ghata S'aila, Narachala, and Harinamala. A terrible 
army gathered at Mokhavata. On hearing this, Narayana Shah 
hastened there with a large force.- From the fort at the entrance 


to the town of Jaitrapura, Narayana Shah engaged (he enemy with 
his archers, who killed the warriors of the opposing army with 
showers of arrows. The enemy fled away, leaving on the field 
flags, horses, elephants and treasures which were looted by tin; 
victorious army of Narayana Shah. Narayana Shah only took the 
banners of the enemy and the royal elephants. Other things wore 
allowed to remain with his warriors, who were moreover favoured 
-^ with grants of villages, jewels, precious clothes and gold. 

Narayana Shah now set out with his harem on a pilgrimage to 
■Nasik. A Mahommedan officer came there to collect the tax from 
pilgrims. He was thrown into the river by the soldiers of Narayana 
Shah, who however taking pity on him dragged him out. After 
bathing in the river, he gave much wealth to the Brahmanas and 
worshipped the gods Sundares'vara and Kapali Mahes'vara. He 
also worshipped at Panehavati' the image of Rama with Lakshmana 
on the right, Sita on the left and Hanumfin with folded hands in 
the front. From Devasthana, he sent his harem with his son-in-law 
Mangalajit and his Brahmana S'arngadhara to Mayuragiri. 

With a desire to take the kingdom of Javari, ( Javar) he went 
with his army to Pithapura ( Peint ). The king of Javara whose 
capital was looted by the advance force of Narayana Shah came to 
him trembling with fear, with straw in his mouth and axe on his 
neck, and fell at his feet. He requested Narayana Shah to take 
some villages and give him back his kingdom. Making thus the 
king of Javari hjis feudatory, Narayana returned to Kamnagar, 
the capital of Ramadeva. Hearing the fate of the king of Javari, 
Ramadeva appeased him by giving him horses, elephants, and the 
fort of Pendavala. 

Gangadasa, father of Mangalajit, son-in-law of Narayana Shall, 
requested Narayana Shah, who had encamped near Khamalpura on 
a hunting tour, to put Mangalajit on the throne of Vasudevapura 
which was wrested from him by his elder son Tanadasa. Making 
his way through dense forests by felling the trees with axes and 
tusks of elephants, he reached Vasudevapura, and filling the sur- 
rounding ditch with wood and stone, took the to/n, looted its 


wealth and set it on fire. Tanadasa fled for his life from forest to 
forest. The town of Vasudevapura was rebuilt and Mangalajit 
was crowned as its ruler. 

Burhan Shah 1 sought the help of Narayana Shah for conquer- 
in'"' the southern country. Narayana inarched with his army to 
Vatagrama, near the Galana fort. He sent from there half of his 
forces to join Burhan Shah and he himself remained in the 
village, obstructing the path bf the enemy's forces. Narayana 
Shah's army defeated the enemy and crowned Burhan Shah as the 
king of ■the southern country. Burhan Shah sent many presents 
to Narayana Shah, who now looted the towns lying on the borders 
ofMt. Galana. 

Cantos 14 to 17 are taken up with conventional poetical des- 
criptions of amorous sports in the spring, playing in water, seasons, 
the capital, the noon-time, the setting sun, sexual pleasures and the 

Narayana Shah erected in the village of Chinchili a "magni- 
ficent temple and there he got installed the images of gods Vis've- 
s'vara and Vishnu. In the town of Jaitrapura before the god 
Babes'vara he preformed the Agnishtoma sacrifice and gave to the 
Brahmanas land, golden ornaments, clothes, dinners and houses. On 
another occasion he got himself and his family weighed against gold 
ancTjewel and distributed it among the Brahmanas. Once he went 
to the temple of Mangatunges'vara and there he made the gift of 
the hides of black antelopes and performed the Kudra sacrifice. In 
this canto the poet, while describing the sacrifices, has shown his 
knowledge of the Purvamimansa and the sacrificial literature. 

Murad Shah, son of Akbar, encamped with his army in Bhrigu- 
pura ( Broach ) for conquering the kingdom of Nizam Shah. 3 
Akbar had given him a letter to Narayana Shah ordering him to 
join Murad in his expedition in the south, with a present of a pair 
of valuable Kashmir cloths and a white horse. Murad Shah 
.sent one of his warriors with the letter to Narayana Shah. 

1 Burliaa Xiz;iiii Shah of Ahmedaagar. 
■2 ■ Vide Briggs' Ifcrislita vol III pp. 291-301. 


Obeying the orders of the Emperor, Narayana Shah marched 
with his army to Broach. His sons Pratapa Shah and Hari- 
hara followed him up to Panchamukhy on the banks of the 
Tapti. On his reaching Anklcshvar, Murad sent his officers with 
presents to receive him. Crossing the Nurbuda in the boats sent 
by Murad, Narayana Shah came to Broach. He advised Murad 
to know beforehand the depth of the enemy through secret 
messengers and to' postpone the expedition till the beginning of 
autumn. Narayana Shah then visited S'uklatirtha. on a pilgrimage 
and there worshipped the gods Hurnkara Vis'vcs'vara and Varaha 
Maheshvara. His gifts to the Brahmanas on this occasion were 
>so large that Murad Shah came there to see him making donations. 
Entrusting the work of chanting theGopaJa Mantra to Brahmanas, 
he returned at the request of Murad to Broach. Here too he wor- 
shipped the gods Somes'vara and the goddess Saindhavi. Murad 
then presented him with valuable clothes and ornaments, a sword 
■with a golden sheath embedded with jewels, elephants and horses. 
Narayana then took leave of Murad and set out for his capital. At 
the town of Pippalavatik&-on the Tapti he bathed in the river and 
worshipped Brahma.. Narayana then reached his capital amidst 
the joy of the people. 

At the end of the monsoon, Murad sent a messenger to 
Narayana Shah for joining him. At this time Pratapa Shah, lii.s 
eldest son, was sent on his earnest request to help Mufad. Pratapa 
Shah joined Murad with his army at Dhayit (Dayta). The 
combined forces halting at Nandurbar and Nerpura came to the 
enemy's country of Galana, which they looted freely. Khan 
Khanan and Birjakhan with Mir 1 of Khandesh joined them in 
the town of Paravat. Murad- was enraged at their delay but was 
appeased by Pratapa Shah. Khan Khanan then requested Murad to 
give the generalship of the armies to Mir, but Murad refused, as it 
was already given to Pratapa Shah. After plundering and burning 
the town of Panlvat, they reached the Kurpara village on the river 
Godavari and looted it. • Pratapa Shah here performed ablution 
and gave to the Brahmanas plenty of gold, jewels, elephants and 

1 Haja Ally Khan. Ferishtn 



horses. Plundering the villages on the way, they reached Punya- 
stambha on the Godavari. Pratapa Shah here too bathed in the 
river and worshipped Vis'ves'vara and made donations to the 
Brahmanas. Pratapa Shah prevented the army from plundering 
the town, which however was at last looted, when 'vacated by 
the inhabitants through fear. Plundering on their way Nerpura, 
Devalayali (Devalali,) RadMpuri and Nandigrama, the armies 
reached Ahmednagar, the capital of Nizam Shah, and besieged it. 
Pratapa Shah took a leading part and fought so bravely as to 
excite the wonder and admiration of Murad. The fort was then 
stormed. The commandants of the forts surrendered and requested 
the Prince to leave the fort to them and take the kingdom of 
Virata. ( Berar ). The victorious armies then turned to Virata. 
Pratapa Shah performed ablution at Meghankarapura and enriched 
the Brahmanas with rich gifts. Reaching Bal&pura in the Virata 
country, the armies made a halt there on account of the monsoon. 1 

1 In 1595 Ahmednagar, the capital of the Naizam Shahi Sultans, was 
the scene of fearful struggles between the different parties in the state. Their 
mutual animosity reached such a pitch that one party committed the fatal 
error of appealing for aid to Sultan Murad, the second surviving son of the 
emperor Akbar, who was then in Gujarat awaiting the opportunity of 
interfering in the affairs of the Deccan. The prince and his commander-in-chief, 
the Khan-i-Khanan at once marched southward- through Berar as far as 
Ahmednagar, to which capital they laid siege. Those who had invited the prince 
interfere now bitterly repented for their rash action and for a time at least 
all parties were united in their opposition to the invader. The siege dragged 
on and the heroic endeavours of the Sultan Chand Bibi had already dishearten- 
ed the Mughal leaders when news arrived that the eunuch, Suhail Khan, the 
commander-in-chief of the Bijapur troops, with an army of 70,000 horse, 
including, as well as his master's force, the troops of the Golconda kingdom and 
such of those of the Ahmednagar kingdom as were not shut up in the capital, 
was marching to the relief of the beleaguered town. The Khan-i-Khanan, as 
cautious ;is Sultan Murad was rash, made overtures of - peace and a treaty was 
concluded, by fhe terms of which Berar was deceded to the Mughal empire, on 
condition that the imperial troops withdrew from the hereditary dominions of 
the Nizam Shahi dynasty, and refrained from molesting the independent king- 
doms of the Deccan. The Mughals accordingly retreated into Berar, and Sultan 
Murad settled at Balapur, which he made his military head-quarters. About 
leu miles from the town he built himself a palace, and named the village which 
grew up round it Shahpur, Of the palace it may now he said perierunl etiam 
mime. Balapur thus became for a time, the capital of Berar. 

Historical landmarks of the Deccan pp. 172-173. 



Pratapa Shah, however, anxious to sec his father, returned with 
the consent of Prince Murad "and Khan Khauan to .Mayura^iri 
with largo presents from Murad and a promise of u portion of 
the conquered country, to join them, however, at the end of 
the monsoon for conquering the kingdom of Illakhan ( Suhail ). 
Narayana Shah had four sons, Pratapa Shah, Harihara, Ghatur- 
bhuja and Rajasinha. Pratapa Shah had also a son .named 
Bhairavasena. 1 

How much of this is corroborated by Mahomcdan historians 
will be seen from the footnotes. 

Most of the places mentioned in this work can be identified m\_, 
the Atlas-sheets of the Navsari, Surat, Khandesh and Nasik v " 

The Bagulas a clan of the Rathods. The Bagulas 5 of 
Mayuragiri, 3 like the Rathods of Northern India, claim thom- 

1 Ogilby 1670 ( Atlas V ) shows Baglan as . the territory of Duke 
Pratap Shah. According to the local story during Mughal rule the fort, was 
ruled by two independent Kshatriya chiefs, Pratap Shah and Bhairav Shah. 
These chiefs held about 1500 villages, the present district of Baglan and the 
Dangs. They were very rich and had jewels of great value and a white 
elephant. The Mughals required the chiefs to do homage at Delhi. The chiefs 
refused'and the hill stood a siege of twelve years, but had then to surrender. 
The oountry fell to the Mughals and the gems and the white elephant worn 
to Delhi. On one of the stone pillars of the temple of Gauapati on Mulher 
Fort there is a Maratbi inscription dated Shako 15:31 ( 1(112 A. D. ) Paridhavi 
Samvatsara. It is in four lines of Devanagari letters and records the building 
of a Mandap by Pratap Shah who was the chief of Baglan. There is also one 
grant dated Budhvar Paush Sliuddha 8th, Shake 1557 (1030 A. 1).). 
In it Bhairawshah confers on a Brahman named Mir J'oshi as much land, 
belonging to Kasba Kansi of the Baglan Prant, as can be cultivated with one 
plough and a well situated therein. 

2 The word Bagula in Marathi means a fabulous animal of the cat-kind. 
Ba,"ula Bova is still used in Marathi to frighten little children. It is stated in 
the present poem that Gopachaudra was called Bagula as his head was put 
awry so as to frighten people. The name BtiguJan seems to mean the country 
of the Bagulas. 

3 Mayuragiri is the same as Mulher. According in a local tradition 

the fort was held, in the times of the lYinduvas by I wo brothers Mayuradhvaja 

and Tamradhvaja. Mulher Fort in Satuua, on a hill about two miles south of 

Mulher town and 2,000 feet above the plain, lies at the head of the Musaip 




selves to have descended from the Rathod Kings of Kanauj. The 
<jotm of the Rathods of Jodhpur and of the BagjiksfTocT^vas the 
same viz., Gautama and there were alsohouses of Kanojia 
Brahmanas on the Mulher fort. Rashti audha is nothing but a 
sanskritized form of the word Rathod. M is not certain whether 
these southern Rathods had any connection with the Rashtrakut- 
as, who had held the fort of Mayiira Khkndi, the presenl fort of 
Markhind in the Dindori District of the Nasjk Collectorate. 

The history of Baglan. From very remote* times the route 
of traffic between Konkan and Guj arat lay through Baglan. 

valley about forty miles north-west of Malegaon. The hill is half detached 
froin a, ran"e which riies westwards till it culminates in Saler about twelve 
miles' further west. Ttie hill has three fortified peaks near one another, Mulher 
in the middle, Mora to the -east, and Hatgad to the west. 

Mulher, the strongest of the three, and known as Bdla Killa or the 
citadel, is about half a mile in extent. About half way up, after passing three 
■mteways, comes a rolling plateau with the ruins of what must have been a 
considerable town. There are still some houses of Kanojia Brahmans, some 
bungalows, and a mosque and some cisterns and reservoirs. The whole plateau 
is beautifully wooded chiefly with mangoes and banyans. It is defended by 
masonry wall which runs along the edge of the lower slope and at each end is 
carried to the foot of the upper scarp which is about 100 feet high. The upper 
scarp is approached through the usual succession of gateways. The further 
ascent is undefended until an angle is reached in the natural scarp above, and 
the crevice leading thence to the plateau above the. scarp is defended by a 
sTKFct'Ssion or gateways now more or less ruined. The point of the plateau thus 
reaches nearly at the western and the westmost of the two plateaus of which the 
hill-top is formed. There is a more prominent angle and crevice nearer the 
middle of the hill-top, but the top of this crevice has been closed by a solid 
masonry wall, which also forms a connection between the two portions of 
the plateau which are at this point separated by a dip of some fifty to a 
hundred feet. 

The east half of the plateau is slightly higher than the west half, and is 
defended at the point just mentioned by walls and gateways, which make the 
eastern' part a citadel or inner place of defence. Near the third gate are thrco 
guns known as Faleh-i-Lashkar, Ramprasad and Shivapraead, each seven feet 
long. There was a fourth gun called Markandeya top which the British 
Quverament is said t<j have broken and sold. On the flat top inside the fort 
are the ruins uf a large court-house, and a temple of Bhadanganath in good 
repair with a terrace in front bearing an inscription. Here and there on the 
slopes arc about fifteen reservoirs, some underground, other open. All of them 
hold water throughout the year. There are two amunition magazines and a 
third with three compartments. Nasik Gazetteer. \ 



Baglan seems to have been ruled in early times by local chiefs who 
had one of their head-quarters at Saler in the north-west. The in- 
scriptions of the Nasik caves show that from B. C. 200 to A. ]). 200. 
Nasik was under the Andhrabhrityas or S'atavahanas, who ruled 
at Paithan. Early in the fifth century ( A. D. 416) the north 
Deccan seems to have been under the Abhlra tribe, whose capital is 
believed to have been at Anjaniri, five miles cast of Trimbak. Tim 
Abhlras, according to the Puranas, remained independent only 
for sixty seven years. The Rashtrakutas then seem to have 
exercised suzerainty over Baglan. Under them Mayiirakhand (the 
modern Markhinda ) was a fort of great importance, as it was from 
here that the Rashtrakuta King Govinda III ( 7 S 5-8 10 A. D. ) 
issued his two copperplate grants, both dated A. D. SOS. It is not 
certain that Mayiirakhand i was the capital of the Rashtrakutas. 
After the overthrow of the Rashtrakutas by Tailapa Chalnkya 
about 970 A. D., the suzerainty of Nasik and the North Deccan 
seems' to have been divided between the Chalukyas of Gujarat 
on the North and the Chalukyas and Kalachuris of Kalyan 
till 1182 A. D. The Yadavas of Chandor and Devagiri ' then 
exercised lordship over Baglan. It is mentioned in the Rash- 
traudhaMvya that Yasasvin, Sohada and Harihara, brothers of 
Jakharaja of Kanouj, accepted service under king Jayasinhadcva 
of Anahillapura ( Gujarat ). Harihara got the kingdom of Idar, 
while the other two returned to Kanuaj, whence they again sot out 
for conquest. Sohada came in the land of Ahiras and Bhills in the 
Nasik district and at Pippalgram, he killed Ahiras and five 
hundred Bhils^in battle and established himself at Pippalgafcn, 
Yasasvin, on the other hand, married the daughter of Ramadeva of 
Devagiri and got from him the village of Talakunkana. His son 
Gajamalladeva seems to have extended his possessions by takino- 
some country under the sway of Allaudin. His son Mdlugi seems 
to have made still further extensions, as it is mentioned that he 
conquered in battle the Yadava king Ramar&ja, whom he released at 
the reguest of his famous minister Hemadri by making him his 

At the end of the thirteenth century Baglan is mentioned as 
a district dependent on Gujarat, bordering on the dominions of 




Ramdev, the Devgiri king. In 1297, Ray Karan, the last of the 
Anhilvada kings of Gujarat, on his defeat by Ulugh Khan, Ala-ud- 
din's general, with the help of Ramdev of Devgiri, for several 
years maintained, his independence) in Baglan. In 130G, Ala-ud- 
din's General Mali! Kafur encamped on the borders of the Deccan, 
and sent Ray Karan an order to deliver up his daughter Devaldevi, 
then a girl of thirteen years. Ray Karan refused to give up his 
daughter, and as a last resource, in spite of the objections to marry- 
ing her toaMaratha, agreed to the proposal of Ramdev of Dev- 
oid that she should form an alliance with his son Shankaldev. 
Ulu"h Khan, the Gujarat general, was ordered to force his way 
through the Baglan hills. For two months Ray Karan defeated 
all his attempts, but at last the Musalmans prevailed. Ray Karan 
was defeated and forced to fly, leaving his elephants, tents and.' 
eqipage on the field. Ulugh Khan persued him without success. 
While halting for two days within a march of Devgiri, some three 
hundred of his troops went without leave to see the caves of Ellora. 
On the way they fell in with a party of Hindu horsemen, and after 
a^sharp fight, secured the lady whom they were escorting, and 
found that she was the princess Devaldevi. She> was carried in 
triumph to Delhi and became the wife of Khizr Khan, Ala-ud-Din's 
son. In the same year, when Ramdev of- Devagad agreed to hold 
his territory as a tributory of Delhi, his power was extended to 
Navsari in Gujarat. This must have included the possession of Bag- 
lan. In 1370, after the overthrow of the Hindu prince of Devgiri, 
Baglan at least in name became subject to the Muslaman rulers of 
Deva'iri or Daultabad. 

It was Malugi's grandson Nanadeva, who seems to have founded 
the kingdom of Bagulas at Mayuragiri. He took S'tilagiri ( Salor) 
from Muhesa, the chief of the Gopas, and gradually occupied 
the forts of Mayuiuchala ( Mulher ) and Pis'ol and fixed his 
head-quarters at Jaitrapuri 1 ( Jaitapura ), a village near the Mulher 

1 The Baglan chief's head-quarters -were at Jaitrapura, a village .near 
the Hulher tun, which in former times is said to have been a large place, the 
Telis' houses alone numbering 700. It is now nearly deserted though there 
are remains of numerous buildings. Nasik Gazetteer. 



fort. The Tarikhi-i-FcrozNhahi says that about 1340 A. D. the 
mountains of Mulher and Salher wen- held by a chief named 
Mandev which seems to bo a mistake for Nanadeva. 

The establishment of a kingdom in Nasik by the Bagulas can 
thus be fixed in the beginning of the forteenth century from 
their own record and their claim to have occupied the Deccan from 
the fourth century does not thus seem to lie correct. 

In 1347 in the disturbances, which ended in the Deccan becom- 
ing independent of Northern India, the Bahamani kings seem 
to have lost hold of Baglan. In 13GG, in the reign of Muhammad 
Shah Bahamani I, the Baglan chief is mentioned as making 
common cause with, and sending troops to help the rebel Bairani 
Khan Mazindarani, who was causing disturbances near Daultabad. 
The Baglan chief with many supporters accompanied Bairam 
Khan to Paithana but on hearing of the Bahmani king's approach, 
deserted the cause and fled. A few years later, in 1370, when 
Malik Raja, the founder of the Faruki dynasty, established himself 
in Khandesh, he marched .against Raja Baharji, the Baglan chief, 
and forced him to pay a yearly tribute to Delhi,. This Baglan chief 
claimed to be of the stock of the Kanouj Rafchods and to have been 
established in Baglan since 300 A. D. They claimed to have at 
first been independent, coining their own money, and stated that 
they afterwards lost their power, and paid tribute to Gujarat or to 
the overlord of the north Deccan, whichever happened to be the 
stronger. Each chief on succession took the title of Baharji. 1 
At the close of the fourteenth century, on the establishment 
of the Musalman dynasty of Ahmadabad, Baglan seems to have 
become tributary to Gujarat. In 1429, Ahmad Shah Bahmam I, 
who was then at war with Gujarat; laid the country waste, and 
unsuccessfully attempted to take the fort of Tambola. About 
1490 it is noticed that, under the able government ot two brothers 
Malik Wagi and Malik Ashraf, who wore in power in Daulatabad 
the robbers, who infested Baglan were brought under subjection, and 

~ Ti^^Tc^l^^ iuaaainoTuCh Uagula the .Hi,; ot U,« 
chiefs of Baglan. It may be from JJluuravu but thut », W the name ot some .a 
these chiefs and not their title. 


J , _ „„, ,, 



the roads, for the first time, were safe enough for merchants and 
travellers to pass without guards. In 1499 Ahmad Nizamshah, 
the founder of the Nizamshai dynasty, compelled the Baglan chief 
to pay him tribute. After the conquest of Ahmadnagar by Baha- 
durshah in 1539, Baglan seems to have been under Gujarat control, 
as in 1548 the Banian chief is mentioned as serving the Gujarat 
king with 3000 horse. 

In 1573, when Gujarat was conquered by the Emperor Akbar, 
Baharji of Baglan came with 3000 horse and paid his respects to 
the Emperor at Surat. He afterwards did good serviee' by handing 
over the Emperor's rebel brother-in-law Mirza Sharaf-ud-din Hus- 
sain whom he seized on his way through Baglan. 

Baglan is described in the Ain-i-Akbari ( 1590 ) as a mountain- 
ous well-peopled country between Surat and Nandurbar. The chief 
was of the Rathod tribe and commanded 8000 cavalry and 5000 
infantry. Apricots, apples, grapes, pineapples, pomegranates and 
citrons grew in perfection. It had seven forts, two of which 3 
Mulher and Saler, were places of unusual strength. 

When he conquered Khandesh in 1599, Akbar attempted to 
take Baglan. Pratapshah, the chief, was besieged for seven years, 
but as there was abundance of pasture, grain, and water, and as the 

s were most strongly fortified and so narrow that not more 
than two men could march abreast, Akbar was in the end obliged to 
compound with the chief, giving him Nizarnpur, Daita, and Badur 
with several other villages. In return Pratapshah agreed to take 
care of merchants passing through his territory, to send presents 
to the Emperor, and to leave one of his sons as a pledge at 
Burhanpur. The chief was said to have always in readiness 4000 
mares of excellent breed and one hundred elephants. He is also 
said to have coined malimudis. 

Pratiipa Shah seems to have good relation with Emperor 
Jahangir, as is evident from the Jahangir Charitra composed by 
the author of the present poem at the instance of Pratupa Shah. 1 

1. On Friday, the 21th, Raja Bharjiv, Zamindar of Baglana, came and 
waited on me. His name is Pratip; every Raja there has been of. that place 



In 1629-30 Khaja Abul Hasan, who >was sent with 8000 
horse to recover Nasik, Trimbak, and Sangamner from Khan Julian 
Lodi, marched through Baglan and the chief met-him with -100 
horse. A grant, dated 1635 shows that Baglati was afterwards 
ruled by Bhairava Shah, Pratap Shah's successor. 

In 1409 the chief of S'aler and Mulher furnished 3000 men 
towards the force that was posted at Ramnagar in Dharampur to 
guard Surat from attack by Malikkambar of Ahmadnagar. 

In 1637 Baglan was attacked by Aurangzeb. 1 The chief 
submitted and was made commander of 3000 horse. He received 

they call Bharjiv. He has about 1,500 horse in his pay ( mawdjibkk-wur ), anil 
in time of need he can bring into the field 3,000 horse. The province of 
Baglana lies between Gujarat, Khandesh and the Deccan. It has two strong 
forts, Saler and Maler ( Muler ), and as Muler is in the midst of a populous 
country he lives there himself. The country of Baglana has pleasant springs 
and running waters. The mangoes of that region are very sweet and large, 
are gathered for nine months from the beginning of immaturity until the 
end. It has many grapes, but not of the best kinds. The aforesaid Raja does 
not drop the thread of caution and prudence in dealing with the rulers of 
Gujarat, the Deccan and Khandesh. He has never gone himself to see any of 
them, and if any of them has wished to stretch out his hand to possess his 
kingdom, he has remained undisturbed through the support of the others. After 
the province of Gujarat, the Deccan, and Khandesh came into the possession of 
the late king ( Akbar ), Bharjiv came to Burhanpur and had the honour of 
kissing his feet, and after being enrolled among his servants was raised to the 
mansab of 3,000. At this time when Shah Jahan went to L 'Bnrhanpui-, ho 
brought eleven elephants as an offering. He came to Court in attendance on 
my son, and in accordance -with his friendship and service was dignified with 
royal favours, and had presented to him a jewelled sword, an elephant; a horse, 
and dress of honour. After some days I conferred on him threo rings of 
jacinth (yaqut), diamond, and ruby. 

Memoirs of Jahangir p. 39G. 

1 rf. Between Khandesh and the Sural coast lies the district of 
BAGLANA. It is a small tract, stretching north ami south for about lb'0 miles 
from the Tapti river to the Ghatmata hills of the Nasik district., and 100 miles 
east and west across the Ghats. It contained only a thousand villages and 
nine forts, but no town of note. Small as was its area, its well-watered valleys 
and hillslopes smiled with corn-fields and gardens ; all kinds of fruits grew 
here and many of them were famous throughout India for their excellence. 
The climate, except in the rainy season, is cool and bracing. The Stale was 
further enriched by the fact that the main line of traffic between the Deccan 
and Guzerat had run through it for ages. 




the grant of Sultanpur and Eamnagar in Dharampur on paying 
a yeariy tribute of £. 10,000 ( Rs. 1,00000 ). Baglan was famous 
for its temperate climate, its streams, and the abundance of its 
trees and fruits. It was 200 miles long and broaql, with thirty 
petty divisions and about 100 villages. It was bounded on the 
north by Sultanpur and Nandurbar, on the east by ,Chandor, 
on the south by Trimbak and Nasik and on the west by 
Surat and the territory of the Portuguese. According to the 
traveller Tavernier (1640-1666), Baglan, under which he 
included North Konkan except the Portuguese territory, was 

A Rathor family, claiming descent from the royal house of ancient 
' Kanauj, had ruled this land in unbroken succession for fourteen centuries. 
The Rajahs styled themselves Shah and used the distinctive title of Baharji. 
They coined money in their own names and enjoyed great power from the 
advantageous situation of their country and the impregnable strength of their 
hill-forts, two of which, Saler and Mulher, were renowned throughout India as 

But this position and these strongholds became the cause of their ruin 
when the Mughals conquered Guzerat and Khandesh and wanted to join hands 
across Baglana. An independent prince and master of mountain fastnesses 
could not be left in possession of the main route between these two provinces 
of the empire. The great Akbar had invaded the district, but after a seven 
years'- fruitless siege he had compounded with the Rajah, Pratap Shah, by 
ceding to him several villages as the price of protection to all merchants passing 
through his land. Bairain Shah was now seated on the throne of Pratap. 

Aurangzeb sent an army of 7000 men under Maloji, a Deccani officer in 
the Imperial service, and Muhammad Tahir Khurasani ( afterwards Wazir 
Khan ) to besiege the capital Mulher, Thife fort covers the spacious top of a 
low hill close to the Mosarn river, mile's north-east of Saler. As is the case 
with all Daccani forts, it shelters a walled village lower down the hill side, 
called the Bari or in the language of further south the Pettah. Here lived 
the Rajah and his family. On 16th January, 1638, the Mughal army in three 
divisions stormed the lower fort or Bari, with heavy loss on both sides:) The 
Rajah with some 500 men retired to the upper fort and was there blockaded. 
A month's close investment reduced him to submission. He sent his mother 
and minister to offer to Aurangzeb the keys of his other eight forts and to beg 
for himself a post in the Emperor's service ( loth February ). The overture 
was accepted; he was created a Commander of Three Thousand and consoled 
with a estate in Sultanpur, a district in Khandesh, north of the Tapti. On 
■Itli June, lie evacuated Mulher; his kingdom was annexed and its revenue fixed 
at 1 lakhs for the present. A month later, his kinsman Rudba surrendered 
the fort of Pipla, 'J miles south of Saler. One hundred and twenty pieces of 
artillery large and small, were seized in the forts. 

Sarkar's History of Aurangzeb pp. 50-53. 



enriched by the passage of the great stream* of traffic between Sural 
and Golkanda. The country was full of banian, mango, nwlm, 
cassia, khajur or wild date, and other trees. There were vast 
numbers of antelopes, hares, and partridges, and towards the moun- 
tains were wild cows. Sugarcane was grown in many places and 
there were mills and furnaces for making sugar. The ways were 
safely guarded. 

In 1G70 Moro Trimal, one of Shivaji's officers, took Saler. In 

1G72 Saler was besieged by Muhabab Khan, but a force, sent by 

Shivaji to raise the siege, after severe fighting, succeeded in driving 

off the Moghals. In 1664, Prince Muhammad Azam gained the 

fort by promises and presents. In 1723, the Nizam established 

himself as. an independent ruler in the Deccan; and, under him, 

there was a commandant at Mulher and a governor of Baglan. 

In 1751, Saler and Mulher are mentioned as the chief places in 

Baglan, where Baglanique, half Marathi and half Gujarati, was 

spoken. In 1795, after the battle of Kharda, in Ahmednagar, 

Baglan was ceded by the Naizam to the Peshwa, and along with 

Khandesh, formed the charge of a Sarsubhedar, named Balaji 

Sakharam, who took a prominent part in the Bhil massacres of that 

time. The fort of Saler is said to have been given by the Peshwa 

for dress money to Rani Gahinabai, the wife of Govindrav Gaikwar. 

After the Peshwa's defeat, Baglan passed to the British, by the 

surrender of the fort of Mulher, on the 3rd of July 1818. Till 

1869 Baglan formed part of Khandesh, when it was transferred to 

Nasik. In 1875, Baglan, with its two petty divisions of Jaykheda 

and Abhona, was divided into two subdivisions, Baglan with its 

head-quarters at Satana, and Kalvan. Saler is at present in the 

Navsari district of H. H. the Maharajah Gaekwad. 1 

The Ms. Material. The present edition of the Rashtraudha- 
vans'a Kitvya has been based on the single Ms. of the poem 
hitherto known. It was found accidently by Mr. R. A. Shashy 
while examining the Mss. collection of a Deccani Brahtuana in 
Baroda. It bears the date of Samvat 1745 and consists of Gu leaves. 

1 Much of this information is taken from Ihe .Nasik Uazultcer. 

Genealogy of the Bagulas of Mayuragiri 

^uzw King of Kanouj 





I , 



















I I 

( ruled over ( got the 
Kanouj ) fort of Iddir) 

'RP^RC (went to the ^5? 

South and married ( went to the South 

the daughter of Eft- and got the title 

madeva of of Sitamba, for 

Devagiri) his line ) 





ffi%r ( took possession of the forts of S'aler, 
Mayuragiri, and Pisola and fixed his 
head-quarters at Jaitapura ) 







*K3 • 

5i^ €wor*PRrr? Jta^r zrmmnz srrefer ssraK 



r 1 



Introduction iv — xxi 
Genealogical table xxii — xxiii. 
Text 1-118 

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Indexes 1-4 
Corrigenda 5 


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